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Economics student at University College London who strives to understand the complexity of today’s world writing stories on Monetary Economics, Economic History

Understanding the Differences Between Indirect, Direct and Hybrid CBDCs

Digital Currencies: The New Financial Order? Source: Ledger Insights

Deeming the far-reaching recent enthusiasm in the crypto-world, it is of no surprise that Central Banks would not like to be left behind in the race for new disruptive payment instruments which can shape the banking industry.

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) has been conducting interesting research on Central-Bank Issued digital currencies and worldwide Central Banks are beginning to welcome new initiatives regarding CBDCs. According to a fresh survey involving 63 Central Banks, a third of CBs have perceived CDBCs as a possible medium- to long-term project.

Notably, the People’s of China’s Digital Currency Research Institute led various trials…


To What Extent Can Stablecoins Such As Diem Be Beneficial For Our Current Monetary Systems?

Digital payments. Source: https://www.mindtree.com/blog/central-bank-digital-currency-cbdc-new-form-money-gains-momentum

A Brief Note to the Reader: Before continuing with the reading of this article, I would like to emphasise that there are many ways to read an economic article. Some publications can be that dense that they require some instructions beforehand so as to successfully understand the content. Well, thankfully for the reader, there isn’t any such requirements here but I must say that, since this is a current and hot topic in monetary economics, there is only one rule in the user-friendly manual to…


Germany was an upstart, a wealthy region that wanted and was about to conquer the world, but saw its plans vanished after the Treaty of Versailles in 1919

Photo illustration. ’Europe in 1914'. Source: National Archieves UK Government

1914. The Great Powers of Europe were divided into two rival alliances: The Triple Entente (France, Britain and Russia) and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary and Italy).

Germany was about to become Europe’s new strongest power. Notwithstanding, a sudden, unexpected ocurrence took place on June 28, 1914 in the city of Sarajevo, and which was the spark of the First World War (July 28, 1914 — November 11, 1918). The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne) was assassinated by a 19 year-old Slav nationalist named Gavrilo Princip. After the occurrence, Austro-Hungary accused Serbia (its Balkan rival) of having…


Unaffordable all-time high rental prices have proved to be a disturbance for the community stability

Photo illustration. ‘A depiction of Barcelona, a renowned Catalan wonder’. Source: El País.

In the last five years, rental prices in Spain have skyrocketed 50%, meaning a purchase opportunity for large investment funds but a threat for the inhabitants, as they see their rents increase and their wages remain stagnant.

Assumed that rental prices in Spain, and especially in Barcelona, have proven to be pretty high, one may wonder when the rents bubble in Barcelona will burst. Well, according to experts on the theme, there is no proof to assure that Barcelona’s inhabitants are experiencing a rents bubble because there are signs of a new housing-market crash in the region. As the result…


‘A market for something exists if there are people who want to buy it and people who want to sell it’ — Reinventing the Bazaar, John McMillan

Photo illustration. ‘A depiction of Croesus, the last king of Lydia’. Source: Ancient World Magazine.

Lydia was located east of Ionia, an ancient land of western Anatolia, and extended from the Aegean Sea, occupying the valleys of the Hermus and Cayster rivers. The Kingdom of Lydia existed from 1200 BC to 546 BC and covered a vast territory of the western Anatolia. …

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